Research Resources

Documents and Other Media

The following list of articles, books, and media is by no means comprehensive. It is offered as an introduction to some of the better known investigations of Carroll’s Hundred and related subjects. Any of these materials will also contain references to additional primary or secondary sources to help expand your research.


Johnson, Keach, “The Genesis of the Baltimore Ironworks.” Journal of Southern History 19 (1953): 157-179.

Galke, Laura J. “Did the Gods of Africa Die? A Re-examination of a Carroll House Crystal Assemblage.” Paper presented at the Middle Atlantic Archaeological Conference, 1999, Harrisburg, PA.

Lee, Lori. “Beads, Coins, and charms at a Poplar Forest Slave Cabin (1833-1858).” Northeast Historical Archaeology, Vol. 40, Article 6, (2011).

Logan, George C., Bodor, Thomas W., Creveling, Marian C., Jones, Lynn C. “1991 Archaeological Excavations at the Charles Carroll House in Annapolis, Maryland 18AP45.” Report prepared for Charles Carroll House of Annapolis, Inc., July 1992, Annapolis, MD. Link

Logan, George C. “Archaeology at Charles Carroll’s House and Garden and of his African- American Slaves.” Report to the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (Redemptorists), July 1992, Annapolis, MD.

Logan, George C. “Interpreting Slave Life at Mount Clare: Searching for a Silent Majority.” Paper presented at the Society for Historical Archaeology Conference, 4-8 January 1995, Washington, D.C. Pogue, Dennis J.; White, Esther C.; Leeson, Christy E. “Archaeological Investigations at the Mount Clare Orangery (18 BC 10B), Baltimore City, Maryland.” A Report Submitted to the Carroll Park Foundation, Inc., January: 2002, Baltimore, MD

Klugh, Elgin, “The Laurel Cemetery Project of Baltimore.” Anthropology News (January 2019)

Klugh, Elgin, "Remembering Baltimore's Laurel Cemetery." Coppin State University Webpage (September 2019)

Laskow, Sarah, “The Grim History Hidden Under a Baltimore Parking Lot: After an African American cemetery was bulldozed, families wondered what happened to the graves.” Atlas Obscura (2018).


“Traces of the Trade: A Story from the Deep North.” Synopsis: “In Traces of the Trade, Producer/ Director Katrina Browne tells the story of her forefathers, the largest slave-trading family in U.S. history. Given the myth that the South is solely responsible for slavery, viewers will be surprised to learn that Browne’s ancestors were Northerners. The film follows Browne and nine fellow family members on a remarkable journey which brings them face-to-face with the history and legacy of New England’s hidden enterprise.”

Laurel Cemetery: 1852 - 1957


Ball, Edward. Slaves in the Family. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1998.

Deetz, James. In Small Things Forgotten. New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1996.

Ferguson, Leland, Uncommon Ground: Archaeology and Early African America, 1650-1800. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.

Hoffman, Ronald; in Collaboration with Sally D. Mason, Princes of Ireland, Planters of Maryland: A Carroll Saga, 1500-1782, Published for The Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, VA; Chapel Hill & London: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Lewis, Ronald L. Coal, Iron, and Slaves — Industrial Slavery in Maryland and Virginia, 1715-1865. Westport : Greenwood Press, 1979.

Morgan, Philip D., Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake & Lowcountry, Published for The Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, VA; Chapel Hill & London: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Phillips, Christopher, Freedom’s Port: The African American Community of Baltimore, 1790-1860, Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois, 1997.

Trostel, A.I.A., Michael, F. Mount Clare: Being an Account of the Seat built by Charles Carroll, Barrister, upon his Lands at Patapsco. Baltimore: 1981.